电子商务1-6章复习与总结

亲爱的同学们,本学期电子商务课程主要讲述了六个章节,其中有商业术语、行业知识、常用短语、电脑术语以及相关的定义等等。这六章分别是:
①Overview of Internet and E-commerce;
②E-commerce Business Models and Concepts;
③Customer Relationship Management;
④E-comerce Payment System;
⑤Internet Security Concerns;
⑥E-commerce Marketing Strategies;

在课堂教学中,老师对每一章节的内容进行了归纳和总结;同学们在PPT上看到的内容便是课文的节略和精华版。为了让同学们便于回忆和复习,本文将一至六章的重点内容重新为大家归纳总结了一遍。希望通过对本文阅读能唤起同学们沉睡的记忆,呵呵。

①Overview of Internet and E-commerce;

What is the Internet?
Definition:
The Internet is an open world-wide communications network, linking countless thousands of computer networks, through a mixture of private and public telephone lines.

Function:
electronic mail, news, training and instruction, maps, computer files, games, and countless volumes of information on virtually any subject. It even links customers to commercial Web sites, where they can compare and buy products without ever leaving home.

Unique Feature:
Its component networks are individually run by government agencies, universities, commercial and voluntary organizations. No single organization owns or controls the Internet, though there is an Internet Society that co-ordinates and sets standard for its use.

The history of Internet
American military project as Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the late 1960s; ARPAnet as a telecommunications network; survive a nuclear attack; information to be broken up into small chunks; called packets; be sent over multiple paths to a single destination; be routed through a different portion.

internetworking (interlinking networks) both practical and highly useful; some US universities followed by setting up systems of their own;
ARPAnet began as a series of interconnected university networks; graduate students’ free sharing of knowledge and technology helped to shape the free-sharing environment of today’s Internet culture.

The World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is a collection of linked documents, or pages, that span the Internet. The pages are written in HTML-HyperText Markup Language, which defines the font styles and layout of the pages and, more importantly, creates the links to other documents.

Two Definitions of E-commerce
(1)The use of electronic transmission mediums (telecommunications) to engage in the exchange, including buying and selling, of products and services requiring transportation, either physically or digitally, from location to location.

(2)E-Commerce can also be defined as any kind of business-related activity-transaction of tangible goods or intangible goods taking place over a computer network. E-Commerce provides internal and external efficiencies for firms, their partners and suppliers, and their customers.

Potential benefits of E-commerce for businesses
(1) Benefits for inventory costs
(2) Benefits for production cycle time
(3) Potential benefits of electronic commerce

ICDT business strategy model
Virtual information space
This space is where a firm displays information about their organization, products, or services. This space is the easiest space for a business to enter and is typically the first step taken towards entering the virtual marketplace. What are the major concerns?
Virtual distribution space
This space is used to deliver the product or services requested or purchased by the consumer. For virtual delivery to occur, the products being delivered must be digital (e.g. software) or the service performed digitally (e.g. on-line broker). On-line news services and software companies have been quick to market and deliver their products electronically. What are the major concerns?
Virtual transaction space
This space is used to initiate and execute business transactions, such as sales orders. Aside from those companies engaging in the virtual distribution space, most companies have been reluctant to enter this space. What are the major concerns?
Virtual communication space
This space is used to enable relationship-building, negotiation, and exchange of ideas such as forums, chat rooms, and virtual communities. (E.g. “A Crayola Community”) What are the major concerns?

②E-commerce Business Models and Concepts;

What is the ‘business model’?
A business model a set of planned activities (sometimes referred to as business process) designed to result in a profit in a marketplace.

Eight key ingredients of a business model
Value Proposition
Defines how a company’s product or service fulfills the needs of customers.

Revenue Model
Describes how the firm will earn revenue, produce profits, and produce a superior return on invested capital.

①Advertising revenue model
a company provides a forum for advertisements and receives fees from advertisers (Yahoo sina)

②Subscription revenue model
a company offers it users content or services and charges a subscription fee for access to some or all of it offerings (Consumer Reports or Wall Street Journal)

③Transaction fee revenue model
a company receives a fee for enabling or executing a transaction (eBay or E-Trade Alibaba01 Alibaba02 )

④Sales revenue model
a company derives revenue by selling goods, information, or services (Amazon or DoubleClick)

⑤Affiliate revenue model
a company steers business to an affiliate and receives a referral fee or percentage of the revenue from any resulting sales (MyPoints)

Market Opportunity
Market opportunity refers to the company’s intended marketspace and the overall potential financial opportunities available to the firm in that market space.

Competitive Environment
Refers to the other companies operating in the same marketplace selling similar products

Competitive Advantage
Achieved by a firm when it can produce a superior product and/or bring the product to market at a lower price than most, or all, of its competitors

Market Strategy
The plan you put together that details exactly how you intend to enter a new market and attract new customers

Organizational Development
Describes how the company will organize the work that needs to be accomplished

Management Team
Employees of the company responsible for making the business model work

Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Business Models
Portal
offers powerful search tools plus an integrated package of content and services
E-tailer
online version of traditional retailer
Content Provider
information and entertainment companies that provide digital content over the Web
Transaction Broker
processes online sales transactions
Market Creator
uses Internet technology to create markets that bring buyers and sellers together
Community Provider
provides an online community of like-minded individuals for networking and information sharing

Other Emerging Areas of E-Commerce

C2C Business Models
connect consumers with other consumers

P2P Business Models
enable consumers to share file and services via the Web without common servers

M-commerce Business Models
traditional e-commerce business models leveraged for emerging wireless technologies to permit mobile access to the Web

Industry Value Chains
set of activities performed in an industry by suppliers, manufacturers, transporters, distributors, and retailers that transform raw inputs into final products and services

③Customer Relationship Management;

Definition of CRM
A strategy supported by a technological framework for integrating the entire business organization for the purpose of learning more about customers’ needs and behaviors and developing stronger relationships with them.

Importance of CRM
Research has shown that companies that create satisfied, loyal customers have more repeat business, lower customer-acquisition costs, and stronger brand value. All these result in better financial performance.

Goals of CRM
The idea of CRM is that it helps businesses use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behavior of customers and the value of those customers. CRM aims at:
providing better customer service,
helping sales staff work faster,
making customer service department (e.g. call centers) function more efficiently,
cross-selling products more effectively,
simplifying marketing and sales processes,
fostering new customers, and
increasing customer revenues

E-CRM
CRM facilitated by the Internet technology is termed as e-CRM.
However, e-CRM is not simply electronic CRM. It is customer management for e-Businesses that must confront the complexity of managing sophisticated customers and business partners in a variety of media including: online storefronts, offline storefronts facilitated or assisted by telecommunicating or email, and more automated and electronic forms of communication.

Implementation of CRM
Customer information collection
Identifying your customer expectation gaps
CRM channels and customer contact center

④E-comerce Payment System

Five types of payment system
Cash – key feature: it is instantly convertible into other forms of value without the intermediation of any other institution
Checking Transfer– key feature: funds transfer directly via a signed draft or check from a consumer’s checking account to a merchant or other individual
Credit Card– Credit card represents an account that extends credit to consumers, permits consumers to purchase items while deferring payment
Stored Value– Accounts created by depositing funds into an account and from which funds are paid out or withdrawn as needed
Accumulating Balance– accounts that accumulate expenditures and to which consumers make periodic payments

Float period
the period of time between a purchase and the actual payment for the purchase

Limitations of Online Credit Card Payment System
Security
Neither the merchant not the consumer can be fully authenticated
Merchant Risk
Consumers can repudiate charges
Cost
Roughly 3.5% of purchase plus transaction fee
Social Equity
Young adults do not have credit cards
Almost 100 million adult Americans cannot afford cards or are considered poor risks

Electronic Billing Presentation and Payment
New forms of online payment systems for monthly bills
Allow consumers to view bills electronically and pay them through electronic funds transfers from bank or credit card accounts

⑤Internet Security Concerns;

Seven Security Threats to E-commerce Sites
Malicious code
includes a variety of threats such as viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and “bad applets”

virus is a computer program that has the ability to replicate or make copies of itself, and spread to other files

worm is designed to spread from computer to computer

Trojan horse appears to be benign, but then does something other than expected

Hacking and cybervandalism

hacker is an individual who intends to gain unauthorized access to a computer system

cracker is the term typically used within the hacking community to demote a hacker with criminal intent

cybervandalism is intentionally disrupting, defacing, or even destroying a site

white hats are “good” hackers that help organizations locate and fix security flaws

black hats are hackers who act with the intention of causing harm

grey hats are hackers who believe they are pursuing some greater good by breaking in and revealing system flaws

Credit card fraud
Different from traditional commerce
Hackers target files on merchant server

Spoofing
Misrepresenting oneself by using fake email addresses or masquerading as someone else

Denial of Service Attacks

Flooding a Web site with useless traffic to inundate and overwhelm the network

Distributed Denial of Service attack uses numerous computers to attack the target network from numerous launch points

Sniffing
A type of eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over a network

Insider Jobs
Employees with access to sensitive information
Sloppy internal security procedures
Able to roam throughout an organization’s system without leaving a trace

Encryption
The process of transforming plain text or data into cipher text that cannot be read by anyone outside of the sender and the receiver.

Cipher text
text that has been encrypted and thus cannot be read by anyone besides the sender and the receiver

⑥E-commerce Marketing Strategies;

Consumer behavior
a social science discipline that attempts to model and understand the behavior of humans

Culture factor
the broadest factor to consumer behavior and shape basic human values, wants, perceptions, and behaviors

Subcultures
subsets of cultures that form around major social differences

General Model of Consumer Behavior
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Direct reference groups
include one’s family, profession or occupation, religion, neighborhood, and schools

Indirect reference groups
include one’s life-cycle stage, social class, and lifestyle group

Opinion leaders (virtual influencers)
influence the behavior of others through their personality, skills, or other factors

Lifestyle group
can be defined as an integrated pattern of activities (hobbies, sports, shopping likes and dislikes, social events typically attend), interests (food, fashion, family, recreation), and opinion (social issues, business, government)

Psychological profile
is a set of needs, drives, motivations, perceptions, and learned behaviors

Five stages in the consumer decision process:
awareness of need
search for more information
evaluation of alternatives
the actual purchase decision
post-purchase contact with the firm

Two new factors of consumer decision process:
Web site capabilities — the content, design, and functionality of a site
Consumer clickstream behavior — the transaction log that consumers establish as they move about the Web and through specific sites

Marketing
the strategies and actions firms take to establish a relationship with a consumer and encourage purchases of its products or services

Internet Marketing
is using the Web — as well as traditional channels — to develop a positive, long-term relationship with customers, thereby creating a competitive advantage for the firm by allowing the firm to charge a higher price for products or services than it competitors can charge

Feature set
is the bundle of capabilities and services offered by the product or service

Core product is the core benefit the customer receives from the product
Actual product is the set characteristics designed to deliver the product’s core benefits
Augmented product is a product with additional benefits to customers beyond the core benefits embodied in the actual product

Commodity
is a good or service for which there are many dealers supplying the same product and all products in the segment are essentially identical

Brand
is a set of expectations that consumers have when consuming, or thinking about consuming, a product or service from a specific company

最后,请大家记住,以上只是供你参考的一些定义和解释。老师更期待你自己的理解以及你自己的解答。

Author

Comments

24

  1. 今天很碰巧的看了一年前你上听力课时你给我们介绍的片子
    the holiday果然很好看,可以形容成一杯泛着茉莉花香的淡酒,丝丝沁脾,芳香四溢

  2. 今天的传播学已经菜掉了!!!!!
    希望明天的电子商务有好运!!!!!!

  3. roger啊,要不是看你的面子我真是不想看这些东西了,好痛苦好痛苦呀,让我一度有某些极端的冲动…
    明天终于可以解脱了…
    我强烈祈祷…
    :大汗

  4. 我说,出点选择题也好啊
    怒了 :怒火

    我很昏啊很昏啊·························································································································

    明天就考了,昏了昏了

  5. 阿米托佛,估计我已被“诅咒”了。意识到自己和科目要求的距离是很好的,但也不必恼怒于老师呀。 :大汗

  6. 回家看这个网站,心里感觉别样。。。。。roger新年快乐谢谢你的电商课!

  7. 终于搞定了那篇该死的文章!唉,电商怎么到这里就完了呀。看着大家备考时的留言,我总感觉这学期还该上这个课!从家回到这个学校看这个网站感觉又不一样!

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